Lynch Bio:

Understanding the reading:
Book Summary:
Cliff's Notes 1:
Cliff's Notes 2:
Basic Powerpoint:

Extending the reading:
Short film on Lynch and the city:
Excerpt of film by Lynch:
Art film inspired by Lynch:
Social network media project tracking the city:
"Invisible Cities," creative writing by author Italo Calvino:
Digital poetry about the city:

Documentary / media object on Appalachia previewed at OSU last night:

Koyaanisqatsi, short excerpt:
Remix of Koyaanisqatsi and Baraka:

Some questions to guide your reading that may be the subject of class discussion.
Chapter 1: The Image of the Environment
Question 1: Why did Lynch include marginal notes (e.g. on page 5, "See Appendix A."), and marginal images? Follow up on one note, and try to decode one image – perhaps write a short description of what you find, and jot down an idea for how to include this in your own writing.
Question 2: What is an "environmental image," and how does it differ from other images?
Question 3: What is "legibility," and what is the consequence of legibility for an environmental image?
Question 4: "Structure and identity" are intentionally abstract, why? And how do they work?
Question 5: How would you explain "legibility" to someone who has not read this book?

Chapter 2: Three Cities
Question 1: What is the method employed, esp its two parts? Where should readers go for an elaboration on the method?
Question 2: What is a "public image" and where was it first explained (help: not in this chapter)?
Question 3: How would you describe three major differences between the cities presented in this chapter? How are those differences reflect in the images of the cities?
Question 4: How would you summarize the common themes and how those themes inform images of the city?
Question 5: Beyond the text – What important things are missing from these images of the city? (help: )

Chapter 3: The City Image and Its Elements
Jake Mulkey, 4:10 Class

1. Perspectives of New York City
2. Elements of New York City and their Image/ Discussion

The city image contains many elements and features which help (and in some cases hinder) a person's ability to view a city in a positive way. These include Paths, Edges, Districts, Nodes and Landmarks.
  1. Paths:typical areas of movement
  2. Edges: close sections off to others (parks, borders, etc.)
  3. Districts: areas with common identifying factors
  4. Nodes: areas of entrance and transportation through the city; in a sense, directional markers
  5. Landmarks: point reference, from sight, which are used for orientation and description of the city as a whole.

Why is lynch so keen on these five things? In other terms, what about these five labels to elements of the city make them useful for interpreting the way a city is evaluated and the way that a person views a city? (Think about first impressions)

Through Lynch's description of paths he emphasizes that paths can deal more with what lines and the simple use of 'paths' as a form of movement from one place or another. To what extent do the surroundings of a path have an influence on the usage and memorability of it? What factors influence different paths?

Many times paths take on different characteristics within the city which lead them to have different uses. One characteristic of a path is its ability to be an Edge (border) of separating one area of the city from another. These can be parks, waterfronts, important streets or impasses. How much are paths and edges the same, and what are their similarities and contrasts? For many cities, the edges are something you would see much more from a bird's eye view and something that immediately comes to mind when thinking of the cityscape.

Districts are the easily identifiable areas and sections of cities. The distinction between districts can depend on many things which all factor into the overall environmental image and atmosphere. The different components which make up the districts include: texture, space, form, detail, symbol,building type, use, activity, inhabitants, degree of maintenance, topography.

Nodes represent the junctions in places which bring them heightened attention. Nodes include transportation points and are good perceptual markers in cities. Examples are things like different squares, transit stops, and parks/plazas. Nodes can have thematic concetration which means there is a practical use to the space with high activity and that is attractive to the viewer. This adds to their memorability. Also a factor which affects the image of a node is whether or not it is introvert or extrovert. Nodes may or may not be secluded and sometimes are highly differentiated from the areas around them. Other times they are consistent with the surrounding areas and stand more of a directional purpose and a meeting place within a district.

Sometimes nodes contain a large presence within the city, whether central location or based on being able to be viewed from different views. Landmarks are singled out and important in the city's image. There are two ways which a landmark can stand out: whether it is able to be viewed by many locations or whether it is in local contrast to other elements. Landmarks are the buildings and structures which add character and identity to a city. In terms of importance, what are some distinguishable factors between nodes and districts? Do these different factors contribute to how the city as a whole is viewed?


Multiple entrances into the variety of dining options
in the student union allowing for a continuous flow of people. The dining areas are not used for consuming meals
solely but also as a place to socialize with peers.

Students also use these areas for schoolwork as well as socializing and eating.

Once you enter the Union you immediately have access to a variety of options of food such as the coffee shop, market place, Woody's, and Sloopy's.

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Open spaces to prevent congestion Dining area accessible from multiple different dining options

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Woody's environment is more suitable for catching up on games or with friends rather than studying assumed by the low lighting.

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Woody's includes this intimate lounge area with comfortable arm chairs and a fire place.
Appendix A: Some References to Orientation
This Appendix describes the more cultural approach of form and the different elements of cities and the observations we make within them. Here are some questions to think about...

1. Imagine you're lost in a foreign city.What are some things you would look for as you quickly found your way that would indicate a 'safe' feeling?
The influence of landscape, and the organization of activity. Think about the things you would find safe if you're lost, are they based on memories you have and the feelings of security along with them?

2. How does the organization of your surrounding affect your overall demeanor? This is entirely perspective based, some people feel more comfortable in crowded loud areas with high chaos, and others feel more inclined to be in the quiet.

3. It is part of the human condition to observe and find meaning in behaviors, emotions, and activities; with that being said it is also part of the human condition to look for patterns and things that are pleasing to the eyes. Describe your perception of a utopian society? How does your idea of utopia vary from someone else's? Is it based on the way things look, or the way people act, or a mixture of the two?

4. Humans are always adapting. As time progresses we look for new reference systems based on points of interest. Points of Interest are more abstracted than the everyday directional reference systems we generate like maps and coordinates and things like satellite GPS. Which do you think is more useful, guiding by feeling or guiding by exact direction?